Egypt's History: 10 Historical Landmarks in Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northern Africa, located on the lower reaches of the River Nile. Fascinating historical landmarks remain in the region and remind the modern viewer of a life in prehistoric Egypt. 

The Great Pyramid of Giza 

The Great Pyramid of Giza is the oldest and largest of the pyramids in the Giza pyramid complex bordering present day Giza in Greater Cairo, Egypt. The pyramid is also the oldest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. 

Image of Egypt. The Great Pyramid of Giza called the Pyramid of Menkaure, the smallest of the three Pyramids. Tomb of the Fourth Dynasty Egyptian Pharaoh Menkaure. 26th century B.C. Old Kingdom, © Tarker / Bridgeman Images

The Great Sphinx of Giza 

The Great Sphinx of Giza is a huge limestone statue of a reclining sphinx. A sphinx is a mythological creature with the head of a human and the body of a lion with the wings of a falcon. 

Image of The Great Sphinx of Giza, situated on the Giza Plateau adjacent to the Great Pyramids of Giza on the west bank of the Nile River. The date of its construction is uncertain, the head of the Great Sphinx now is believed to be that of the pharaoh Khafra. Khafra (also read as Khafre, Khefren and Chephren) was a pharaoh of 4th dynasty; 2570 BC, © Universal History Archive/UIG / Bridgeman Images

The Museum of Egyptian Antiquities 

The Egyptian Museum of Cairo is home to an extensive collection of ancient Egyptian antiquities. Over 120,000 items are stored in the museum, a large number of these are on display! The museum was built by Italian construction company, Garozzo - Zaffarani and designed by French architect Marcel Dourgnon. 

Image of Headrest with Shu, the Egyptian God of the Air, from the Tomb of Tutankhamun, New Kingdom (ivory), Egyptian 18th Dynasty (c.1567-1320 BC) / Egyptian, Egyptian National Museum, Cairo, Egypt, © Bridgeman Images

White Desert 

The white desert is located in Farafra, Egypt. Rock type in this region is of a snow-white to cream colour. Massive chalk formations can be found in the desert. 

Image of White Desert/White Desert/National Park/Sahara/Egypt, Photo © Petit J. P./HorizonFeatures / Bridgeman Images

St Catherine’s Monastery 

St Catherine’s Monastery is an Eastern Orthodox monastery located on the Sinai Peninsula at the mouth of a gorge at the foot of Mount Sinai. The monastery is named after Christian saint and virgin, Catherine of Alexandria. 

Image of St Catherine Monastery at the foot of Mount Sinai, home to Eastern Greek Orthodox church also U.N.E.S.C.O World Heritage Site. Sinai, Egypt, Alain Le Garsmeur, Photo © Alain Le Garsmeur / Bridgeman Images

The Valley of the Kings 

The Valley of the Kings is an extraordinary valley in Egypt where many rock tombs were excavated for the pharaohs and powerful nobles of the New Kingdom. The valley stands on the west bank of the River Nile. 

Read more about the Valley of the Kings in this blog post!

Image of a Panoramic View of the Valley of the Kings, Thebes, Egypt (photo), Tal der Koenige; Theben; Aegypten; Ancient Egyptian burial site of the 18th-20th Dynasty; © Bildarchiv Steffens / Bridgeman Images


Alexandria is the third largest city in Egypt after Cairo and Giza. Alexandria was founded by Alexander the Great in 331 BC. The city is located on the northern coast of Egypt along the Mediterranean sea. 

Image of Map of the world, 1486 (coloured engraving), Ptolemy (Claudius Ptolemaeus of Alexandria)(c.90-168)(after) / Greek, Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, France, © Bridgeman Images

Abydos Temple 

Abydos is one of the oldest cities of Ancient Egypt. The city is a site to many ancient temples. Abydos is considered one of the most important archaeological sites in Egypt. 

Image of EGYPT: ABYDOS TEMPLE Ruins of a temple at Abydos, Egypt. Photograph by Francis Frith, c. 1860, © Granger / Bridgeman Images

Saqqara Necropolis 

The Saqqara Necropolis is located 30 kilometers north of Cairo. The area has a vast number of pyramids and underground tombs for one to discover! The Step Pyramid of Djoser is one of the most popular pyramids found in the area 

Image of Egypt. Necropolis of Saqqara. General view from the mastaba of Ti. In the background, three little pyramides © Tarker / Bridgeman Images

Bibliotheca Alexandrina 

The Bibliotheca Alexandria is one of the largest and most important libraries in the world. The library is located alongside Alexandria’s ancient harbour. 

Image of The Library of Alexandria in Egypt (Bibliotheca Alexandrina), Architect Snohetta, 2002, Photo © Collection Artedia / Bridgeman Images


Read more about Ancient Egypt and the Valley of Kings



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